What Is Cancer?

Cancer is a condition that arises when alterations in a group of normal cells within the body lead to uncontrolled, abnormal growth forming a lump called tumour. Tumours can develop and spread into surrounding normal tissue or other regions of the body via the bloodstream and lymphatic systems.

Cancer can affect the digestive, neurological, and circulatory systems as well as release hormones that can impair bodily functions if left untreated.

Types of Cancer

Cancer is categorized based on the type of cell from which it arises. The following are the five primary types:
It is a kind of cancer that develops from epithelial cells (the lining of cells that helps protect or enclose organs). Carcinomas can spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body after invading the surrounding tissues and organs. Breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancer are the most frequent cancers in this category.
It is a kind of malignant bone or soft tissue tumor (fat, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and other connective tissues that support and surround organs). Leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and osteosarcoma are the three most prevalent types of sarcoma.
Both Lymphoma and Myeloma are malignancies that start in the immune system’s cells. Lymphoma is a malignancy of the lymphatic system, which spreads throughout the body and may affect anyone.
It is a malignancy of the white blood cells and the bone marrow, which produces blood cells. There are numerous subtypes of lymphocytic leukemia, the most frequent of which are lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
These are also identified as central nervous system cancers. Some are harmless, but others have the potential to develop and spread.

Early Detection of Cancer

A variety of cancers can be detected early, which increases the odds of a good treatment result, typically at a cheaper cost and with fewer (or less severe) adverse effects for patients. Colorectal, breast, cervical, and oral cancers can all be detected early with cost-effective tests, and more tests are being developed for other cancers.
Consult your doctor for information on national immunization, testing, and screening guidelines. These can and do differ from one country to the next.

Prevention of Cancer

Reduce your exposure to risk factors including cigarettes, obesity, physical inactivity, infections, alcohol, pollution, occupational carcinogens, and radiation to avoid over a third of all cancers.
Vaccination against the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and the Human papillomavirus (HPV), which protect against liver cancer and cervical cancer, respectively, may also be beneficial in the prevention of some malignancies.
Other carcinogens, such as pollution, occupational carcinogens, and radiation, might be reduced to help prevent future cancers.

Causes of Cancer

Modifiable Risk Factors:

Non-modifiable Risk Factors:

Signs & Symptoms of Cancer

Cancer Care during COVID-19

Patients with cancer are a vulnerable demographic as they are exposed to a variety of problems during pandemics, including infection susceptibility and disruption of their regular medical care. As a result, healthcare institutions have faced a significant problem in balancing the delivery of continuous cancer care while decreasing the danger of exposure to patients during treatment.
In low and middle-income nations with limited resources, inadequate infrastructure, a paucity of healthcare providers, and a scarcity of medical supplies and personal protective equipment(PPE), the pandemic’s negative impact is likely to disrupt the delivery of critical care.